Monday, January 19, 2009
1.1. Menjelaskan penggunaan konsep dasar dan pendekatan geografi dalam rangka memahami fenomena geosfer
2. Menganalisis dinamika unsur-unsur geosfer serta kaitannya dengan kehidupan manusia
2.1. Mendeskripsikan proses perkembangan pembentukan bumi
2.2 Menganalisis fenomena yang terjadi pada lithosfer serta kaitannya dengan kehidupan manusia
2.3. Menganalisis fenomena yang terjadi pada pedosfer serta kaitannya dengan kehidupan manusia
2.4. Menganalisis fenomena yang terjadi pada atmosfer serta kaitannya dengan kehidupan manusia
2.5. Menganalisis fenomena yang terjadi pada hidrosfer serta kaitannya dengan kehidupan manusia
2.6. Mendeskripsikan keanekaragaman flora dan fauna di muka bumi sebagai potensi pendukung kehidupan
3. Menganalisis dinamika unsur-unsur sosial dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
3.1. Mendeskripsikan fenomena yang terjadi pada antroposfer
3.2. Mendeskripsikan potensi industri sebagai pendukung kehidupan manusia
4. Menerapkan ketrampilan dasar peta/pemetaan dalam memahami fenomena geosfer
4.1. Menerapkan ketrampilan dasar pembuatan peta/pemetaan fenomena geosfer
5. Memahami pemahaman citra dan SIG sebagai media informasi fenomena geosfer
5.1. Menginterpretasi Penginderaan Jauh sebagai sumber informasi fenomena geosfer
5.2. Mendeskripsikan Sistem Informasi Geografi sebagai media informasi fenomena geosfer
6. Menjelaskan perkembangan wilayah
6.1. Membedakan pola keruangan dan interaksi desa-desa, desa-kota, dan kota-kota
6.2. Mendeskripsikan karakteristik suatu wilayah sebagai pusat pertumbuhan di negara berkembang dan di negara maju
Friday, January 16, 2009
Judul : Pendidikan Transformatif (Pergulatan Kritis Merumuskan Pendidikan di Tengah Pusaran Arus Globalisasi)
Penulis : Musthofa Rembangy, M.Si.
Penerbit : Teras - Yogyakarta
Cetakan I : April - 2008
Tebal : xxxvi + 241 halaman
The assumption was not based on the existence of a variety of other facts that indicate that at all levels and areas of life in the country's philosophy of life crisis. They thus become the educated corruptor while those who are not educated to become even sneak. There are also groups that confusion, and become fitter inhaler sabu-sabu and fell on the drugs. While the purpose of education is actually the birth of individuals independent, mature, responsible and sensitive to permasalah social environment.
Book that is now present in our midst again try to fill the vacancy discourse-new discourse that is necessary to direnungkan together. Musthofa Rembangy, the author of this book with the title Education transformative (Struggle Formulating Critical Education in the Middle eddy Globalization), offers a different perspective on various issues will be education nowadays. Especially in education in the land of water terstigma still backward compared with the countries of others.
When the future of education which has been running in Indonesia, quite a lot of systems that must be changed even dirombak total. Start from a perspective that is used, the model of learning, emphasis on educational goals and many more lines and in various other sectors. That should all be done in order to push up the quality of human resources that will be produced soon in order to fight and wrestle for the torrent of globalization.
In general, this book presents the ideas and constructive play in scrutinize the world of education today. Sprinkle dilontarkan thought that step as a strategic effort to do reconstruction in mind that more education and transformative global conception. Education is always the humanist values in life, but also capable of reading the real conditions in the global community at this time and the conception of the future. Makes this book very important to us it would be made with reference.
If the developed countries, education has proven significant results. In the last few centuries of the development of education and experience spectacular progress, especially in terms of engineering science and technology. Encouraging people to be strong and street. All the needs of socialization can be more easily met in the time of rapid and practical. The era of technology and industry, as a mirror of contemporary education.
According to the author of this book, offers a model of education that should be implemented, this is a model of adult education as well as transformative bervisi global conception. Model of cooperative education to all students the ability to process the free thinking and innovative. Appreciate at the same time developing the potential of every individual with the potential to grow and develop is a reasonable and humane not turned off with any form of sanctions and penyeragaman.
In the vortex flow of globalization, the reality of our education also has not been able to create a critical learners and have the ability in facing global challenges and that the more oppress mencengkram. This is the situation in education is not value-free, the education should be concerned. Interests to deliver candidates of the nation is capable of facing all challenges to be faced in the future.
Transformation of education is important to notice a strong challenge in the global era. One is the transformation of large-scale konsekuesi create logical emergence new culture of ethics in our human resources work. If education still rely on certain aspects, can be the education we will be far behind with the other nations. In the macro, the era of globalization is a challenge to grasp the human resources competencies among nations.
Therefore, the impression merenungi every step of life we can keep the essence of education sincere. Act as the values of education have been taught during this lelehur from the root of the culture of this nation. Not change the philosophical foundations of education with the values of pragmatic in real life and very empty. The idea is an education should be directed to the noble goal, that is, the man who makes intelligent, creative and humanist.
In other words, the future of this nation depends on the condition of education today. Therefore, through this book, at least we can make this country more successfully treat human and humane education are also high berintelektual. A dream that does not necessarily become a mere utopia, but we must try to achieve now. At least, good for us as educators, students, observers of education, policy, government and the general public, this book can be made as of the beginning of everything. Hopefully!
*) Ahmad Makki Hasan
Mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana UIN Malang dan Guru SMA Negeri 1 Kota Malang
According to Ernest Renan (often referred to as the father of nationalism), nationalism defined as a desire to unite (le froufrou etreensemble d') as a nation. Will grow this awareness will be encouraged because the history or the experience of living together and traveled together.
Based on historical analysis, the Congress Youth II dated 28 October 1928 and the Youth Oath diperingati as a manifestation of the growth of national consciousness (nationalism) in the struggle of Dutch colonialism and imperialism, where the pattern of resistance before this more locally. And can not dinafikan awareness that growth could not be separated from the contribution of young people with idealism and post-implementation of new paradigms Etis Politics.
Kegemilangan young people play in the role as the motor of awareness as this is a nation that inspire them to move back to free us from political oppression, economic, legal and so forth, the leaders made their own Ironically, that is the Old Order era (1959-1966) and New Order (1966-1998).
In the field of politics, democracy is alive in the discourse and rhetoric, but in reality dead. Pembangunnan economy enjoyed only certain groups, especially the power elite, the owners of capital and close to the power elite. Meanwhile, the security of the position before the law (equality before the law) of the 1945 Constitution in Article 27 paragraph 1 is not implemented. In fact, the law is often a shield of power and become a tool for action melegalkan authoritarian ruler.
Order regime after a long and successful New Order prostrate, nationalism get serious tests, both from internal and external. From internal, Euphoria freedom can be the spirit of individualism and partikularisme. Various demands for this region that many have experienced oppression diakomodasi possible not to develop into a conflict kontraproduktif or even separatism. Nationalism also may not be fast to oversee the reform process.
Meanwhile, the external challenge is about the problem of globalization. Nationalism is not synonymous with chauvinisme. Indonesia still demanded the ability to be able to live and work nerdampingan nations dnegan world. Moreover, the 1933 Montevideo Convention on one of the elements of the state is related to the ability of other countries. However, keep in mind that the demands of globalization is not to cause interference in other countries to set up business in Indonesia so that it does not get stuck on a new round foreign imperialism. In addition, relations with foreign countries must be held to support and should not harm efforts to achieve national goals as stated in the 1945 Constitution of the fourth paragraph, namely to protect the entire Indonesian nation and the entire homeland of Indonesia, to promote general welfare, achieve the life of the nation and participate in implementing the order berasarkan world of freedom, lasting peace and social justice.
Facing these problems, the role of active young people with the spirit nasionalismenya still is necessary, among others, while maintaining the spirit of concern will be the fate of Indonesia, the awareness for the nation keentingan above personal or group interests, and moral movement to oversee the process of reform toward the front of the Indonesian nation is better in all sectors.
What is an ebook? Is there an accepted definition of what we are talking about when we say or write “ebook?”
The term ”ebook” has generally been associated with two things. First, there is the actual book (i.e. content) that one is reading in a digital form, that is the ebook. Second, the device built specifically to read an ebook, using a handheld computer with screen, is called the ebook reader. The Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader Digital Book are the two best-known examples of ebook readers. For years (decades actually), there has been a movement to read ebooks from computers, laptops, or other existing devices, but that business never really matured.
This ebook industry we are talking about here, which will grow significantly over the coming year, has been emerging for the last 1-2 years. It includes a whole new generation of technology specifically designed to enhance the experience of reading an ebook. 2009 will birth this dynamic new industry, which includes ebook readers, ebooks, and associated products and services to support the publishing, distribution, and reading of ebooks using versatile, mobile, eye-friendly ebook readers.
2009 is the “Year of the Ebook.” Here, in no particular order, is why:
1. NEW EBOOK READERS WILL MAKE LAPTOPS AND IPHONES LOOK OLD
In 2009, we will see a merging of digital technologies and plastics, that will bring us lighter, more durable and versatile, and more attractive devices for reading ebooks. These ebook readers will be a significant aesthetic leap over the existing laptops or cell phones we use. They will not only be mobile, they will be office-friendly, home-friendly, and best of all, café-friendly.
2. CRITICAL MASS HAS BEEN ACHIEVED, NOW ITS ABOUT GROWTH
The ebook reader is on a similar sales path as the iPod was during its first couple years on the market. It took the iPod about two years to reach a million users. The ebook is roughly now at half a million users who have bought ebook readers in the last year, and another half a million users who are using existing devices, primarily the iPod/iPhone.
3. MILLIONS OF PEOPLE WILL EXPERIENCE DIGITAL INK FOR THE FIRST TIME AND THEY WILL LOVE IT
Less than 1% of the people who use the Internet have personally experienced the new digital ink technologies, which make reading significantly more pleasant. The primary supplier of the new technology behind the ebook readers is a company named E Ink. Watch for a sea-change in opinion about ebook readers once more people have used E Ink based products.
4. IF THERE’S ONE THING EVERYONE WANTS NOW, IT’S COMFORT
Books and ebooks, in all their forms, are comfort food for the mind. Books allow you to pause for a moment, think, remember, and reflect, at your own pace.
They are stable and personal. Whether its reading Siddhartha for the 11th time, or finding a new cookbook, ebooks will deliver well-timed comfort for the intellectually needy.
5. WHAT YOU WANT, WHEN YOU WANT IT? – NOW THAT’S PRACTICAL
Any book, anytime, anywhere? Need to find that favorite passage from Alice in Wonderland for your kids Right Now? How about some quiet poetry before you make that dynamic PowerPoint presentation? A chapter from your college accounting textbook? The practical advantages of ebooks will outweigh the emotional attachment to books.
6. DO YOU WANT TO DOWNLOAD 1 MOVIE OR 1,000 EBOOKS?
It takes roughly the same amount of time, bandwidth, storage, however you want to measure it, to download 1,000 ebooks, as it does to download one movie. That means, that the cost of delivery is cheap, which benefits everyone. No new fancy networks need to be built. While there is no guarantee that ebook prices will be less than their book counterparts, there is at least hope.
7. THE MONEY PEOPLE: COST OF ENTRY IS STILL LOW, POTENTIAL HIGH
In a couple years, when the ebook industry is more developed, it will cost a lot more money for companies to enter this industry. 2009 is the perfect year for the venture capitalists (who will have all refined their approaches but not their end goal!), corporate investors, even angel investors in smaller opportunities to risk money in hopes of being a player in a high growth market.
8. A MILLION EBOOKS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS: IT’S THE “OTHER INTERNET”
Most books have gone through rigorous conceptual, proofing, editing, and completion processes. Each has its own unique content, wrapped in a tight tangible package. Think of a million ebooks like a million websites, each with about 200 pages, where each page of the book can be directly accessed. Collectively, all these ebooks represent a great new source of information.
9. THE BOOK IS JUST A FORMAT, NO DIFFERENT THAN A CD, VHS, OR DVD
Yes we loved those liner notes on the LP’s, then the tiny liner notes on the CD’s, but by and large we have now essentially detached ourselves from LP’s, and soon CD’s. The book is just a delivery format, that has lasted an amazing 500+ years, but at its heart, the book is just there to deliver the content, something ebooks can do much better.
10. ONE WORD: POWER
Power consumption for ebook readers is significantly lower than for the laptops or cell phones we now use. You can sit there for a couple weeks of continuous reading before even thinking about recharging your ebook reader. Compare that to whatever device you are currently carrying around with you.
11. AUTHORS, PUBLISHERS, AND DISTRIBUTORS BENEFIT FINANCIALLY
Already companies are reporting higher profit margins on ebooks versus books. There are so many direct costs involved with books, that now disappear with ebooks, including printing, shipping, and handling. There are also the indirect costs, all the people needed to support that type of operation. Ebooks take away those costs and overhead.
12. PLAYING AROUND WITH BOOKS IS OK, READING THEM IS BETTER
If you want to spend your time getting in the car, driving to the bookstore, or perusing a library, that’s fine. But be truthful about what that time is, book hunting is NOT time spent with a book. If you can find yourself immersed within a book faster, because of ebook search and download software, well then, it means you have now spent more time within a book.
13. A TRULY GREEN TECHNOLOGY – WITHOUT EVEN TRYING
Even though there has been a lot of talk about technologies “saving trees”, really most of it has been just that – talk. Over 20 years ago, this author was trumpeting CD-ROM as the technology to “save the trees” only to find out that people using CD-ROM’s liked to print pages. Now, with advanced digital ink for ebooks, no need to print all those pages for better reading, because the better reading is on the ebook reader.
14. WITH A CHALLENGING ECONOMY, COMPANIES WILL LOOK TO ENTER EBOOK BUSINESS
How many companies out there are right now saying, what markets can we move into that are growing and where we can really compete? From consumer electronics to phones and business equipment, many companies can reconfigure existing resources to build ebook readers, peripherals, software, and services. That means more investment in ebooks, and more choices for consumers.
15. TRY IT ONCE, YOU’RE HOOKED FOR GOOD
The first time you get one of your favorite ebooks downloaded via wireless connection onto your ebook reader in less than a minute, guaranteed it won’t be your last time. It’s an amazing experience, to suddenly be reading a book, maybe a new book, or a book you have not seen in 5 years, all with no fuss. Order the book, have one sip of tea, and the book is ready.
16. THE IPHONE, NINTENDO DS WILL INSTANTLY EXPOSE AND PROMOTE EBOOKS
There are existing devices that do not have the current digital ink technology, but can instantly offer their customers access to books. Though the readability may be an issue, this still serves a purpose of exposing millions of people to the concept of reading ebooks.
17. RIGHTS FIGHTS: IT’S ALL-GOOD WITH EBOOKS
With music and movies, there were (and still are) hell-raising arguments between companies and industries involving rights. Books are much cleaner, they are a simpler intellectual property with fewer stakeholders in the actual work. Books are usually written by one person, compare that to the large complex teams creating movies or music.
18. THE HUGE NUMBER OF FREE EBOOKS AVAILABLE
There are hundreds of thousands of well-known books in the public domain, being offered for free, right now, legally. Whereas we rarely listen to music or watch movies over 50 years old, in fact many classic books that we love were written a long time ago, and still have their charm or use. Think Alice in Wonderland or The Art of War.
19. A NEW GENERATION OF INDEPENDENT AUTHORS WILL NOW COME FORWARD
Writing and editing 200 pages is hard work, no matter how you look at it – book or ebook. However, just like in music, the theory is that some good authors have not been able to get published because of “the system.” Now, they can Stick It To The Man, independently publish an ebook, and get broad exposure for very little money. Caution: again like in music, independent does not mean “good” – it merely offers a new vehicle for new voices.
20. IT’S THE CONTENT, STUPID
Really the book or ebook is just a transmission device. It transmits a long and maybe heartwarming, or possibly informative message – from the author to you. Let’s not forget that. Whatever gets you absorbed into the content in a more dynamic, efficient, informative way, will benefit you. In those departments, ebooks score high. It’s the content, stupid.
Monday, January 5, 2009
1. Why Bangsa Europe interests with Indonesia?
There are some factor that push nation Europe new world searching, entered be next Indonesia draw fires nation struggling Europe, for example:
a. The need for of nation mace Europe that sebelumya disuplay by islam merchants, nevertheless consequence growing of crusade causes commercial relation is referred [as] broken, until push nation Europe to find direct source/mace producer is referred [as]
b. European Bravery to conduct ocean exploration is pushed by opinion that state that that earth circular. Expedition also bent on to prove theory [the] truth is referred [as]. Expedition to expedition, with pioneered by Portugis and Spain, growing prove that terori are referred [as] truely correct, until then more and more merchant that not as yet common to conduct sea transport to east world.
c. Story/journal journey Marcopollo that explain that east world is region that very rekomended for visited because rich in natural resources, especially mace. This condition growing pushes merchantmen Europe to explore e east world.
d. Existence of Amanat Agung to inform Bible. Merchantmen Europe besides perform economics activity: trade also also bring duty to inform Bible
2. How effort the Netherlands (VOC) inculcate its influence in Indonesia?
Expedition the Netherlands to Indonesia marked by succeed its merchant fleet the Netherlands that land in Banten. This Successfullness then followed by other merchants, until more and more merchant the Netherlands that conduct commerce activity in Indonesia. To prevent the happening of competition between merchant humanity the Netherlands, later, dibentuknlah VOC in 1602 that provided with various of special rightses, like:
a. Armed forces form
b. Have currency
c. Make an agreement with local empires
d. Found fortress
With various of privileges its referred [as] VOC try to inculcate its influence in Nusantara (because initially name untapped Indonesia). VOC tries memonopoli every kativitas commerce in nusantara. All local powers are forced to confess that VOC lah the only one trading business that may operate in Nusantara, and all local merchants are forced only braid commercial relation with VOC.
In its effort inculcate this influence, usually VOC always uses approach:
a. Offer relation/link that in character monopolies
b. Force will;desire with strength. VOC haves war fleet by it self, until every local power that opposed always fought. To win the day VOC always exploits “service” insider. VOC always exploits conflict in palace, with certain reward. As in Banten, Mataram, Makassar. After party that helped won conflict VOC always asks strategic area for founded fortress. Until in process of time almost all seaboards nusantara are controlled by VOC
c. Found fortress. In this case double-duty, that is to observe commercial activity and also to narrow local men in power motion.
Until to the last 18th-century can be all regions nusantara under influence VOC. Growing influence broadness VOC that obtained/got with peprangan make condition VOC becomes brittle. Be next cause VOC are disbanded. Its cause for example:
a. Growing broadness of power region VOC makes ability VOC to control its region weak manjadi, until much merchants that not only trade with VOC but also with EIC (its co-partnership UK, that also is rival VOC)
b. Expense that released to defray war to get region in very high Nusantara until cause cash VOC experiences of bankruptcy
c. Corruption among functionary VOC makes its cash growing empty
On 31 Decembers 1799 VOCs are officially disbanded and control to the nusantara region taken over by government the Netherlands and assign government functionary the Netherlands setingkat Governor general.
3. How influence Revolusi french to Indonesia?
Along with the of VOC, The Netherlands by it self indirectly under power of consequence french Perang Koalisi in Europe. This Condition causes various of policies its in Indonesia directed towards maintain Indonesia from threat UK, for example at a period of power Daendles, that is focus its strength in area that is main source economics belanda. Program that dicanagkan by Daendles is:
a. Make highway Anyer-Panarukan. This Street is built to water down team mobility to maintain jawa from attack UK, besides to water down natural resources exploitation in Java.
b. Conduct delivery [is] obliged to. Resident is obliged tax payee that have the shape of land product, especially saleable commodity in the market Europe, like copy, sugar.
In 1811, finally the Netherlands must delivers its lega to UK. UK assigns Thomas Stamford Raffles to manage Indonesia. At a period of power UK, there are some renewal conducted, for example:
a. Abolish delivery system is [is] obliged to changed by tax payee with money.
b. Land/ground is considered as empire property, until resident must rents/tax payee
c. Conduct bureaucracy restructuring
Policy this Raffles fail to properly because in general the Netherlands never defins money system
4. Bagaiman growth of colonial government in Indonesia after 1816?
With Konvensi London make Indonesia returns delivered to the Netherlands. After power era UK, Government Kolonial hindia the Netherlands applies various of policies for example:
a. System Tanam Paksa
Plant force applied to fill blankness of colonial government cash because of endless war face resistance in Indonesia and also central government debt (The Netherlands) after secede from Spain.
Government the Netherlands obliges farmer to plant dipasaran Europe saleable plants. With the Netherlands this system in pocket very big, even more than its debt payee, whereas for indonesian nation is very harmed because farmer only plants plants [is] obliged to and have no opportunity plants consumption plants by it self. As a consequence is appearance of hunger disaster.
b. Open door System
In the Netherlands by it self system implementation plants force get much criticisms, for example from liberals that feel have rights to follow try in shadow-land. Answer to this criticism colonial government gives opportunity to entrepreneurs the Netherlands to inculcate its capital in Indonesia especially in plantations, either on Java or Sumatera. Effect of this system, more and more resident Indonesia that tend to work become labour in plantation, until emerge new society class that is labour.
c. Politics Etis
System implementation plants force and private sector effort is assessed by humanist clan in the Netherlands has gave very big advantage for the Netherlands, until appropriately if the Netherlands releases a policy to improve degree of resident prosperity Indonesia. One of figure are referred [as] is Van deVventer. He/she proposes existence of a be next program of resident prosperity improvement is recognized with Trias Van de Venter, that is: education, irrigation, and transmigration. Education are meant give education to indonesian nation, though that enjoy it just part of small society, that is noblesse and bureaucrat. The Netherlands by it self haves importance denga this education program, that is create skilled administrative personnel for employed in government institutions with low fee. Irrigation is program of irrigation mediums development to irrigate agriculture land/grounds, though finally that enjoying is entrepreneurs plantation. Whereas slated for urbanization fulfills kebutuha labour in plantation area especially in Sumatera.
5. How enter and growing of new isms in Indonesia?
One of effect of the of ethical politics especially education is makes some of society Indonesia become literate. Ability reads this make new society group in society this Indonesia “Intellegentsia” especially from nationalist group feel that ably that they have theirs can fight for improvement of nation degree. by read various of references their menyerap various of new isms like: nationalism, democracy, liberalism, socialism
Differ from opportunism group, that is society group that only employ at various of institutions just for its self-interest by it self.
6. How dependability/new isms influence to nationalism growth in Indonesia?
With knowledge and an understating of various of ismes/ism awakes group of intellectual group that nationalist that to improve its nation degree must berupana to secede from colonization shackle. This intellectual Group pioneers appearance conscious thought to its nation spirit that is being colonized. Pulalah this Awareness be next instruct appearance spirit [of] nationalism among indonesian nation.
Edisi dalam bahasa Indonesia silahkan download disini
A. System Pemerintahan
Raja considered as god [of] incarnation in the world of and have command of highest in government. In its getting tasks done, king is helped by a number of government functionaries. Sons functionary and king consanquinity are given high position in government. Before mount the throne, Crown usually given power area as [the] viceroy (Yuwaraja or Rajakumara). For example, Hayam Wuruk, before mount the throne Majapahit he/she has been lifted mount the throne Muda and position in Jiwana. Also princess Hayam Wuruk that called Kusumawardhani ever coronate as [the] Viceroy and position in Kibalan.
In running government, king is helped by council of empire conference or bhatara seven prabu. This Council on call gives considerations to king. Board member consist ofs king folks. Beside Raja Majapahit, there [is] still a number of area kings or exellencies bhatara. That They command each of them derah-daerah that under royal power Majapahit. They have been entered brother or consanquinity near king. In empire getting tasks done, they are encumbered tigas and obligation to collect production for empire and also keep safety area kekuasaannya.Dalam runs its area government, king is helped by a number of area functionaries with formation much the same to with central government.
In running its government king is helped by three ministers like I hino, I halu, and I sirikan. From third the most that minister, the most minister I hino is the most its minister of position the very top. He/she is the nearest one functionary with king, even sometime given authority to release charter/inscription.
Third the most that minister is helped by roof rakryan minister pakirakiran or a group of high functionary empire that is body of government executor. This Body consist of five functionary people, that is rakryan mahapatih (Patih Amangkubhumi), rakryan demung, rakryan tumenggung, rakryan rangga, and rakryan kanuruhan. At era Majapahit, fifth that functionary is called with Sang Panca ing Wilwatika or Minister of Amancanagara that help king in running its government.
Electroplated from I Wayan badrika, History SMA Kelas X
B. Kings that ever command in Majapahit
1. Raden Wijaya
2. Raja Jayanegara
3. Raja Tribhuwanatunggadewi
4. Raja Hayam Wuruk
5. Wikrama Wardhana
C. Cause Runtuhnya Majapahit
1. Continual regeneration Inexistence
2. Gajah Mada holds all important [position/occupation]s, so as he/she pass away there is no other figure that can replace it
3. Endless Civil war. Because central government bussy with civil war business cause attention to subordinate area become decrease.
4. Subordinate area a lot secede. This condition happens because weakens its observation to area akibar civil war
5. Weaken its government causes weaken it economy strength and military, until much merchantses that move to area that has been controlled by islam
6. Enter and growing of islam influence. Because of has embraced islam, various of powers on shore north Java becomes will feel unattached next with Majapahit